World Events:

  • Anthony Eden resigns (Jan. 9); MacMillan becomes British Prime Minister.
  • Russia launches Sputnik I, first earth-orbiting satellite—the Space Age begins (Oct. 4).
  • The USSR tests its first successful ICBM.
  • Population: 2.888 billion

US Events:

  • Eisenhower Doctrine calls for aid to Mideast countries that resist armed aggression from Communist-controlled nations (Jan. 5).
  • The “Little Rock Nine” integrate Arkansas high school. Eisenhower sends troops to quell mob and protect the students after Gov. Orval Faubus defies federal order (Sept. 24).
  • President: Dwight D. Eisenhower
    Vice President: Richard M. Nixon
    Population: 171,984,130
    Life expectancy: 69.5 years
    Homicide Rate (per 100,000): 4.5

Economics:

US GDP (1998 dollars):   $461 billion
Federal spending:   $76.58 billion
Federal debt:   $272.3 billion
Consumer Price Index:   28.1
Unemployment:   4.1%
Cost of a first-class stamp:   $0.03

Sports:

World Series
Milwaukee Braves d. NY Yankees (4-3)

NBA Championship
Boston d. St. Louis Hawks (4-3)

Stanley Cup
Montreal d. Boston (4-1)

Wimbledon
Women: Althea Gibson d. D. Hard (6-3 6-2)
Men: Lew Hoad d. A. Cooper (6-2 6-1 6-2)

Kentucky Derby Champion
Iron Liege

NCAA Basketball Championship
North Carolina d. Kansas (54-53 3OT)

NCAA Football Champions
Auburn (AP) (10-0-0) & Ohio St. (UP, FW, INS) (9-1-0)

Entertainment:

Events

  • Leonard Bernstein’s West Side Story debuts on Broadway and brings violence to the stage.
  • Eugene O’Neill’s A Long Day’s Journey Into Night is produced posthumously and wins both the Tony Award and Pulitzer Prize.
  • Columbia University professor Charles Van Doren becomes a media sensation by winning $129,000 on the quiz show Twenty One.
  • Leave It to Beaver premieres on CBS, ushering in an era of television shows that depict the ideal American.

Movies

  • The Bridge on the River Kwai, Twelve Angry Men, Sayonara, Peyton Place, Witness for the Prosecution

Books

  • James Agee, A Death in the Family
  • John Cheever, The Wapshot Chronicle
  • Noam Chomsky, Syntactic Structures
  • Lawrence Durrell, Justine
  • Jack Kerouac, On the Road
  • Denise Levertov, Here and Now
  • Bernard Malamud, The Assistant
  • Robert Penn Warren, Promises: Poems 1954—56

Pulitzer Prizes
Fiction: No award
Music: Meditations on Ecclesiastes, Norman Dello Joio
Drama: Long Day’s Journey Into Night, Eugene O’Neill

Oscars awarded in 1957


Academy Award, Best Picture: Around the World in 80 Days, Michael Todd, producer (United Artists)

Nobel Prize for Literature: Albert Camus (France)

1957 Emmy Awards

Best Series, Half Hour or LessPhil Silvers Show (CBS)
Best Series, One Hour or MoreCaesar’s Hour (NBC)
Best Continuing Performance By an Actor in a Dramatic SeriesRobert Young, Father Knows Best
Best Continuing Performance By an Actress in a Dramatic SeriesLoretta Young, Loretta Young Show
Best Supporting Performance By an ActorCarl Reiner, Caesar’s Hour
Best Supporting Performance By an ActressPat Carroll, Caesar’s Hour
Best Direction, Half Hour or LessSheldon Leonard, Danny Thomas Show: “Danny’s Comeback”
Best Teleplay Writing, Half Hour or LessJames P. Cavanagh, Alfred Hitchcock Presents: “Fog Closing In”
Best Direction, One Hour or MoreRalph Nelson, Playhouse 90: Requiem for a Heavyweight
Best Teleplay Writing, One Hour or MoreRod Serling, Playhouse 90: Requiem for a Heavyweight
Best Male Personality, Continuing PerformancePerry Como
Best Female Personality, Continuing PerformanceDinah Shore
Best New Program SeriesPlayhouse 90 (CBS)
Best Single Program of the YearPlayhouse 90: Requiem for a Heavyweight (CBS)
Best Single Performance By an ActorJack Palance, Playhouse 90: Requiem for a Heavyweight
Best Single Performance By an ActressClaire Trevor, Producers’ Showcase: Dodsworth
Best Continuing Performance By a Comedian in a SeriesSid Caesar, Caesar’s Hour
Best Continuing Performance By a Comedienne in a SeriesNanette Fabray, Caesar’s Hour
Best Comedy Writing, Variety or Situation ComedyNat Hiken, Billy Friedberg, Tony Webster, Leonard Stern, Arnold Rosen and Coleman Jacoby, Phil Silvers Show
Best Public Service SeriesSee It Now (CBS)
Best News CommentatorEdward R. Murrow

1957 Tony Awards

PlayLong Day’s Journey Into Night
MusicalMy Fair Lady
Actor—PlayFredric March, Long Day’s Journey Into Night
Actress—PlayMargaret Leighton, Separate Tables
Supporting or Featured Actor—PlayFrank Conroy, The Potting Shed
Supporting or Featured Actress—PlayPeggy Cass, Auntie Mame
Actor—MusicalRex Harrison, My Fair Lady
Actress—MusicalJudy Holliday, Bells Are Ringing
Supporting or Featured Actor—MusicalSydney Chaplin, Bells Are Ringing
Supporting or Featured Actress—MusicalEdith Adams, Li’l Abner
Author—PlayEugene O’Neill, Long Day’s Journey Into Night
Author—MusicalAlan Jay Lerner, My Fair Lady
DirectorMoss Hart, My Fair Lady
Producers—PlayLeigh Connell, Theodore Mann and José Quintero, Long Day’s Journey Into Night
Producer—MusicalHerman Levin, My Fair Lady
ComposerFrederick Loewe, My Fair Lady
Scenic DesignerOliver Smith, My Fair Lady
Costume DesignerCecil Beaton, My Fair Lady
ChoreographerMichael Kidd, Li’l Abner
Conductor and Musical DirectorFranz Allers, My Fair Lady
Stage TechnicianHoward McDonald, Major Barbara
Special AwardsAmerican Shakespeare Festival
Jean-Louis Barrault—French Repertory
Robert Russell Bennett
William Hammerstein
Paul Shyre

Miss America: Marian McKnight (SC)

Science:

  • Temporary artificial heart invented by Willem Kolff.
  • Interferon invented by Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindemann (England and Switzerland).
  • Clarence W. Lillehie and Earl Bakk (US) invent the internal pacemaker. Background: Health & Nutrition
  • Bardeen, Cooper, and Scheiffer (US) propose a theory of superconductivity.
  • First round-the-world nonstop jet plane flight. Maj. Gen. Archie J. Old, Jr. (USAF) led a flight of three Boeing B-52 bombers around the world in 45 hours, 19 minutes (completed Jan. 18). Background: Famous Firsts in Aviation
  • Nobel Prizes in Science

    Chemistry: Sir Alexander Todd (UK), for research with chemical compounds that are factors in heredityPhysics: Tsung Dao Lee and Chen Ning Yang (China), for disproving principle of conservation of parityPhysiology or Medicine: Daniel Bovet (Italy), for development of drugs to relieve allergies and relax muscles during surgery 

Deaths:

  • Humphrey Bogart
  • Richard E. Byrd
  • Joseph McCarthy
  • Arturo Toscanini

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1957 – The Marshall Plan was to rebuild Europe after WWII
(13 Billion Dollars)